About Your Test

Please consult with your physician or the laboratory personnel regarding eating and drinking requirements prior to your test. Our professional laboratory personnel test your blood specimen and compare your results to a “normal range”. Your doctor will inform you of the results.


A/G Ratio
The albumin to globulin ratio is a calculated value that may indicate abnormalities that are not obvious from reviewing the individual test results.

Albumin is the most abundant serum protein. Decreased albumin may indicate many disorders including poor nutrition, kidney disease, or advanced liver disease.

Alkaline Phosphatase
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found primarily in the liver and bones. Elevated serum levels may indicate the presence of bone or liver disorders. The enzyme activity also increases following fractures and in growing children and pregnant women.

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the liver. It may rise with liver disease, viral infections, and reactions to drugs or alcohol.

Anion Gap
Anion gap is a calculated value involving potassium, sodium, chloride, and ECO2 that may indicate abnormalities that are not obvious by reviewing the individual test results.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme found in the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle. AST may rise in liver, heart, and muscle disorders. It can also rise following strenuous, prolonged exercise.

Bilirubin, Total
Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. Abnormally high bilirubin levels may occur in individuals with liver and gallbladder disease, causing jaundice.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is an end product of protein metabolism. BUN level may rise in kidney diseases, dehydration or urinary obstruction among other causes.

BUN/Creatinine Ratio
The BUN to creatinine ratio is a calculated value that may indicate an abnormality that is not obvious by reviewing the individual tests.

Calcium is one of the most important minerals in the body. This may be used to diagnose and monitor several conditions relating to the bones, heart, nerves, kidneys, and teeth.

Calculated Osmolality
Osmolality is a calculated value involving potassium, sodium, glucose, and BUN that may indicate abnormalities that are not obvious by reviewing the individual test results.

Chloride is an electrolyte, important in maintaining electroneutrality in the body.

Cholesterol is one of the major fats (lipids) in the body. High levels may indicate an increased risk of heart disease. Levels can be controlled with diet, exercise and/or medication.

Cholesterol/HDL Ratio
The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol is another indicator of heart disease risk. A ratio of 5.0 or less may be associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

The Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a panel of tests including hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), white blood cell differential count, and platelet count. It is used to assess general health status and to screen for a variety of disorders, including anemia and infection.

Creatinine is a metabolic product released from muscle tissue and excreted by the kidneys, and may rise in kidney disease.

Enzymatic Carbonate
Enzymatic carbonate (ECO2) is the measure of carbon dioxide in the blood. Carbon dioxide is a gaseous waste product from metabolism. ECO2 levels are affected by many conditions including many kidney diseases, some lung diseases, and metabolic conditions. ECO2 levels can also be decreased when the sample is exposed to the air.

Globulin is a major component of blood proteins. Abnormal levels, both elevated and decreased, may indicate infections, allergic states, immune disorders and other diseases.

Glucose is the main source of energy for living organisms. Glucose rises after a meal. It may remain abnormally elevated in some illnesses such as diabetes mellitus.

HDL – Cholesterol
Elevated high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol may be associated with decreased risk of heart disease.

Hemoglobin A1C
Hemoglobin A1C is a test to measure blood sugar levels over the past several months. It is used to monitor glucose control in diabetics and to assess elevated glucose levels in non-diabetics.

LDL – Cholesterol
Elevations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol may be associated with an increased risk of heart disease. High levels of LDL may be reduced by diet and/or medication.

Potassium is present in all body fluids; however, it is mainly found within cells. It is routinely ordered by physicians to evaluate a wide variety of conditions.

Protein, Total
Protein in blood includes two major components: albumin and globulin. Protein levels may fall in chronic disease, malnutrition or cancer. Increases in protein can be seen in dehydrations, blood dyscrasias, and chronic infections among other causes.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in males may be elevated in certain prostate abnormalities including cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Sodium is an electrolyte, which is present in all body fluids. Sodium is used to detect the cause and to help monitor the treatment of dehydration, edema, and a variety of other symptoms.

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroxine (T4). This test is used to detect thyroid disease.

Triglycerides are fats (lipids) that provide a reserve of energy. Increases in triglycerides combined with low HDL cholesterol and increased small particle LDL may indicate heart disease risk. Triglycerides may rise with obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, and after a meal high in fat.